Installing packages from ‘testing’ on a ‘stable’ machine¶
It is nice to be able to run debian ‘stable’, yet still be able to
install the occasionally package from ‘testing’. This can be done by adding both distributions to /etc/apt/source.list and then configuring apt to get only ‘stable’ by default.
This should only be tried for packages without a lot of dependencies, unless you ‘pin’ (see below).
To get only stable by default edit /etc/apt/apt.conf:
bc. APT::Default-Release “stable”;
An example /etc/apt/sources.list with both distributions:
deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian/ stable main non-free contrib deb http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US stable/non-US main contrib non-free deb-src http://http.us.debian.org/debian/ stable main non-free contrib deb-src http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US stable/non-US main contrib
deb http://security.debian.org/ stable/updates main contrib non-free deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian/ testing main non-free contrib deb http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US testing/non-US main contrib non-free deb-src http://http.us.debian.org/debian/ testing main non-free coà.wib deb-src http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US testing/non-US main contrib non-free
Installing Testing Packages¶
With these settings, to install postfix-snap from ‘testing’, you would do this:
bc. > apt-get install postfix-snap/testing
If you are feeling dangerous, you can do this:
> apt-get -t testing install postfix-snap
Note, however, that this will resolve all the dependencies of the package! This can be a very bad idea.
To install a package of a particular version:
> apt-get install package-name=version
Upgrading Testing Packages¶
If you have a testing package installed and do an upgrade, only the stable packages will get upgraded. Here is a quick and dirty way to be able to upgrade your testing packages as well:
> apt-get install apt-show-versions > apt-get install `apt-show-versions -u -b | grep testing`
This will ensure that you do not get more of the less-stable distribution than they had in mind.
note: i have not tested this!!!¶
When installing packages from testing on stable, it is a good idea to set a default ‘pin’ so that you can control which packages will get installed from testing.
If you don’t do this, then your testing packages might require a million other packages from testing, and you could end up upgrading your entire system to testing. Yikes!
Package: * Pin: release a=stable Package: postfix-snap Pin: release a=testing
In general you don’t want to mix stable with testing. If a package isn’t in backports, try to backport it yourself. If both doesn’t work, the simply live with it.
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I tried to follow the instruction for installation and it works. Thank you very much!
Davidson from https://www.lubbockdrywall